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We distinguish subjective notions of plenty:

In traditional times' confined subsistence economy,

and in the ever growing goods consumption and waste disposal of modern society.

It's the consumer's perspective that dominates economy nowadays.

It even relates to the animal kingdom (Bowerbirds).

I have been able to witness all the relevant evolutionary stages ---beginning in pre-war times. ...weiterlesen "Times of Plenty"

Breaking news from the Democratic Republic of the Congo:

Virunga National Park and World Heritage Site is highly treasured as the most important refuge of the mountain gorilla.

Over 3.000 tourists a year visit the southern sector of Virunga National Park to admire the gorillas as well as the lava lake of the Nyiragongo Volcano. But the park has been closed for two years because of political insecurity. It was re-opened a few weeks ago.The Africa Conservation Fund (UK) signed a 10-year management agreement to manage the park in February 2011. The park currently receives most of its funding from the European Union. A Mai Mai militia attacked a park facility and killed two park rangers and a Congolese soldier in October 2012. Five of the Mai Mai militiamen died in the attack. Congolese Revolutionary Army (also known as M23) allegedly has a base camp inside the park.Virunga is currently under threat from UK oil company SOCO International plc who wants to undergo oil exploration within the park.

The director of the park since 2008 is Emmanuel de Mérode. April 15, 2014 he was ambushed by unknown men and seriously wounded.

The attack from ambush happened on the way home from the town of Goma where Emmanuel de Mérode had delivered to the state attorney documents of evidence against the British oil company SOCO.

On their company website SOCO International states:

Block V describes an area which has been delineated by the DRC Government for the purpose of oil and gas exploration. SOCO was awarded the Block V licence in June 2006 by the Government of the DRC. This award was ratified in 2010 by a DRC presidential decree, the final step in the licensing process.

Block V is an area of approx. 7,500 km2 on the border with Uganda; within Block V, SOCO’s specific area of interest is Lake Edward (approx 1,630 km2) and the adjacent lowland savannah which are both within the Virunga National Park. This region of eastern DRC is also commonly referred to as North Kivu, and as part of the Albertine Graben, the Albertine Rift and The Great Lakes Region.

It is emphasised that Block V is not located within the mountainous Mikeno Sector, home to the famous Mountain Gorillas. Block V encompasses an area of the Virunga National Park, a World Heritage Site, which includes part of Lake Edward.

Furthermore, SOCO has stated it will never seek to have operations in the Mountain Gorilla habitat, the Virunga Volcanoes or the Virunga equatorial rainforest. This has been subject to much inaccurate media speculation.


WWF: Soco’s oil drilling in Congo national park could ‘threaten investor returns’

Wednesday, March 5th, 2014 By Charlotte Malone

Campaign group WWF has warned shareholders in oil and gas exploration firm Soco that they could see increased risk because of drilling plans in the Virunga national park in the Democratic Republic of Congo.The plans are coming under “increased scrutiny”, the WWF has said. The organisation claims that the activities in Africa’s oldest national park further increase investor risk, given the environmental and social sensitivities involved in operating within a World Heritage Site.

Soco refuted the claims, saying in a statement, “Soco would like to make it clear that all alleged breaches of the voluntary guidelines raised are absolutely ill-founded, tendentious and not supported by the facts.”

The WWF filed an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) complaint against the company in late 2013, which was accepted last month.

WWF accuses Soco of hiding from resident the full impact of what could potentially go wrong, creating an atmosphere of fear and intimidation at Soco community meetings and not respecting international treaties aimed at protecting the environment.

David Nussbaum, chief executive of WWF-UK, said, “Investors are understandably sensitive to their exposure of future levels of risk, and I would expect many to regard Soco’s plan in Virunga with caution. The initial stages of exploration for oil are only just starting, but it’s clear that Soco is already experiencing problems such as local community protests and the ongoing complaint has filed under the OECD guidelines.

Unfortunately, as yet. The company appears to have adopted the approach of ‘carry on regardless’, which could threaten investor returns, as well as Virunga’s enormous environmental value.”

Operational activities have yet to commence in the area and Soco asserted it would not consider doing so until all environmental studies were fully completed. The company also added that its operations would not be located within the mountainous Mikeno Sector, which is home to Mountain Gorillas, the Virunga Volcanoes or the Virunga equatorial rainforest.

Around 85% of the Virunga National Park has been allocated as oil concessions, although Soco is currently the only company to move forward with exploration

Statement on complaint by WWF

Monday 7 October 2013

SOCO International plc is aware of the complaint raised by the WWF to The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”). SOCO welcomes the scrutiny of such a well respected 3rd party organisation and takes this matter extremely seriously. SOCO would like to make it clear that all alleged breaches of the voluntary guidelines raised are absolutely ill-founded, tendentious and not supported by the facts.

For the record SOCO has not commenced any operational activities and would not consider doing so until all environmental studies were fully completed. This will leave a considerable amount of time to continue meaningful open engagement opportunities. SOCO has already conducted a locally dedicated communications campaign successfully reaching out to over 10 local villages during 2012.

SOCO has recently commenced environmental studies on Lake Edward. The environmental studies include fish and mollusc baseline studies and respond to concerns that have been expressed regarding the impact of potential future exploration activities in the region. These studies have been determined through close collaboration with the Congolese Wildlife Authority (also known as “Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature” or “ICCN”) who are the managers of the Virunga National Park and the Congo Environmental Studies Group (also known as “Groupe d’Etudes Environnementales du Congo” or “GEEC”) and have been approved by the Government of the DRC. SOCO has also recently commenced social projects to help to improve the basic living conditions for the local population around Lake Edward; these projects, which include the provision of communications infrastructure and medical aid programmes, were determined after a period of engagement with the local communities and local and national government.

The OECD guideline’s state that abiding by domestic law is the first obligation of enterprises and the guidelines are not a substitute nor should they be considered to override domestic law and regulation. SOCO would like to make it clear that its operations abide by all the laws and regulations set out by the Government of the DRC

SOCO’s goal is to be a positive presence wherever it has operations and it has an excellent history of operating in Africa and in South East Asia. No oil exploration activities have commenced to date.

Keep Oil Exploration Out of Virunga

Virunga National Park is Africa's oldest national park. It could soon become Africa's newest oil field.

British oil company Soco International PLC plans to explore for oil inside the park, even though the park is protected under Democratic Republic of Congo law. More than 27,000 people fish in Lake Edward and it provides drinking water to 50,000 people. But thousands more benefit from locally sourced fish, renewable energy and other park-related activities.

Oil development in the park would threaten local communities that rely on the park's natural resources and jeopardize the region's potential for long-term income from sustainable development. Virunga is too important to open up for oil exploration. Around 85% of the Virunga National Park has been allocated as oil concessions, although Soco is currently the only company to move forward with exploration.

A refuge for gorillas

The most famous residents of Virunga National Park are critically endangered mountain gorillas, of which only 880 individuals remain in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Uganda.

While the habitat of Virunga NationalPark’s 200 mountain gorillas does not currently fall within an oil concession, development in the park could negatively affect their security.

Allowing illegal activities, such as oil operations, to be conducted in the park fundamentally undermines the authority of park managers, and will make it difficult for them to guard against intrusion by others seeking to exploit its land, trees and animals.

Countries renew plan to protect mountain gorillas

Posted on 07 April 2014

The three countries home to mountain gorillas have agreed on new measures to conserve the critically endangered animals, and to maximize the economic benefits they bring to local communities.

National park officials from Rwanda, Uganda and Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have renewed their joint commitment to protect gorilla habitat spanning their shared borders, and recognized the importance of attracting tourists for lucrative gorilla treks.

Mountain gorillas are the only type of great ape in the world that are experiencing an increase in number, yet only about 880 individuals were counted at the last census. Gorilla family groups in each of the range countries have been habituated to the presence of people, and can be visited on carefully controlled tours.

A portion of the revenue from gorilla tourism is shared with the communities surrounding the animals’ habitats.This creates a strong incentive to protect the animals and the natural setting where they live,” said David Greer, WWF’s African great ape expert. “Visitors also spend money elsewhere during their trip, and that helps the national economy as a whole.”

Insert: Are there any details available about traditional rights and compensation

payments? How is the ownership/land tenure situation in the forested park area in

view of the „illegal“ cutting of wood for charcoal burning?

In Rwanda and Uganda the tourism industry, largely linked to mountain gorillas, accounts for about 8-9 percent of total gross domestic products, World Bank data shows. Gorilla tourism in DRC’s Virunga National Park recently reopened after a period of instability wracked the region.
An independent economic analysis of the parkcommissioned by WWF found that tourism in Virunga has the potential to reach an estimated value of US$235 million per year.

Insert: I cannot locate any consideration of the health risk: humans/tourists

carrying contagious diseases to the apes: even flu can be lethal if no antibodies

exist (see passage below).

Alarmingly, 85 per cent of Virunga National Park has been allocated as oil concessions. Mountain gorilla habitat has been spared, but if oil extraction were to occur, the park’s critical ecosystems and rare species could be put at risk.

WWF strongly opposes the exploration plans of UK oil company Soco International PLC, which intends to start seismic testing in the park this month. WWF is a member of the International Gorilla Conservation Programme, a coalition of WWF and Flora and Fauna International.Together they work closely with the governments of all three mountain gorilla range countries.

The International Gorilla Conservation Programme (IGCP) represents three major NGO coalition partners and the respective protected area authorities in the three countries providing shelter for the remaining wild mountain gorilla populations: Rwanda, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

On the IGCP website its „mission“ is defined as „to conserve the critically endangered mountain gorillas and their habitat through partnering with key stakeholders while significantly contributing to sustainable livelihood development.

Further comments:

Nothing is special in the IGCP „philosophy“ neither except again of the prominent species concerned: The closest relatives of gorillas are chimpanzees and humans, all of the Hominidae having diverged from a common ancestor about 7 million years ago (ref. Wikipedia).

We are fully conscious that the habitat of mountain gorillas largely overlaps with a „conflict zone“ in the Congo ( see above) The attack at the Belgian anthropologist and director of Virunga NP is the most recent alarming indication for how much the life of the NP staff is on risk. The bravery of all the park rangers demands our highest respect. Some 150 Virunga rangers have been killed by the rebels since 1990 (according to WWF/Wikipedia): a shocking number! Approximately ten gorilllas have been shot or killed brutally with bush knifes in the southern part of the park, so far the safest retreat. "Seven gorillas killed in seven months is a horrifying statistic and a trend that cannot continue," said Kwame Koranteng, regional representative of WWF's Eastern Africa Regional Program Office.

To which destination will developments take the fate of the surviving apes and humans, all the same? In the IGCP presentation only some marginal attention is directed to the indigenous people in the park and in its peripherial area. Where are their settlements, their traditional territories located? Which part could they perform in this ongoing drama? Their involvement as guardians should be regarded crucial; the Mai-Mai militia groups are community based. To which communities in the realm of the park do the rebels relate to? If to any.

It should be noted that SOCO International has initiated liaison talks with 10 villages in the Virunga park region, according to the company's website...

Armed rangers cannot bring a solution - cannot stop the rebels' frightening guns. A stable finale to the military (=civil war) and political conflict only can evolve from participating village people. In conjunction with the world public. Virunga was a significant tourist attraction before Congo's 1998-2003 war, which devastated the east of the vast Central African country, triggering a humanitarian disaster that has killed more than 4 million people.

The true natives in this constellaton are the apes; they should be kept out totally from any such human turbulences. A full revision of strategy/terms is imperative! We are not aware of any evidence why the Mai-Mai killed gorillas. Out of retaliation reasons? A balanced investigation should be given priority.

One single expatriate (as far as I understand from the press releases) was in charge of park affairs, from 2008 until he was seriously wounded by gun shots earlier this year.. Tourism has only recently commenced after two years of stand still out of security reasons. Can the world public as presented by UNO tolerate any further such shaky, rather uncertain status quo?

On stake is the survival of our closest relative besides the chimpanzee and bonobo. Only a few weeks ago the imminent danger for the Sumatran orang-utans was taken up by the Avaaz Movement. I believe in this campaign by millions of engaged supporters. Conservation as designed and pronouced by the classical representation of IUCN cannot come up with innovative approaches. Neither the WWF intervention (see WWF heading above).

How is it possible that an oil company has got the concession for exploration and subsequent exploitation in a conservation area of this prime importance and value?

How can we believe that such destructive intrusion can be straightened by raising our voices as usual in these never ending disputes that result in a continuous retreat of the conservation front? This natural treasure belongs to the most valuable world heritage we have got on planet Earth – there is no more to discover. And still we just watch the scene without at least improving what is feasible: In the following FAZ article (in German) I noticed this statement about the park director: Quite a few people in Congo point out that without his brave and inventive engagement the gorillas would not exist anymore! It shows how fragile the survival, how little secured the lifes of the gorillas have to be understood. All the millions of people out there who became aware by the media of this tragedy: how could they get involved?

The murder of Dian Fossey in December 1985 and earlier the killing (by pouchers?) of her belowed silverback Digit (cf. relevant Wikipedia articles) have never been fully investigated and were only marginally referred to in the context of the recent events.

Further above I have referred briefly to the high risk by contagious diseases carried by unconscious tourists. At least one lethal case is on record but was largely ignored in view of money revenue by tourism (cf. again Wikipedia).

How many mountain gorilla populations do exist? In case one gorilla group has been infected, how can a total epidemic in the wider realm be prevented?

To my humble opinion the main Virunga population's habitat should be maintained fully isolated as a strict no-go sanctuary. And a satisfactory modus operandi established with the local village people. A separate, marginal population that is open for tourists - including perhaps zoo-reared individuals – could be maintained in a habitat area where in the recent past gorillas existed or still exist.

Insert -About the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project

The Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project, a U.S.-based nonprofit organization, is dedicated to saving mountain gorilla lives. With so few animals left in the world today, the organization believes it is critical to ensure the health and well being of every individual possible. The organization's international team of veterinarians, the Gorilla Doctors, is the only group providing wild mountain gorillas with direct, hands-on care. The Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project partners with the UC Davis Wildlife Health Center to advance One Health strategies for mountain gorilla conservation. www.gorilladoctors.org

Insert - About the UC Davis Wildlife Health Center

The UC Davis Wildlife Health Center, home of the Mountain Gorilla One Health Program and a center of excellence within the School of Veterinary Medicine, is composed of 13 epidemiologists, disease ecologists and ecosystem health clinicians and their staff working at the cutting edge of pathogen emergence and disease tracking in ecosystems. It benefits from the expertise of 50 other participating UC Davis faculty members from many disciplines who are involved in the discovery and synthesis of information about emerging zoonotic diseases (those transmitted between people and animals) and ecosystem health. Its mission is to balance the needs of people, wildlife and the environment through research, education and service. www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/whc

Media Contact

Molly Feltner, MGVP Communications Officer


My personal concern relates to the lack of certain antivirus immunal systems in the blood of. isolated ape and human communities. For instance, the small tribal communities in the remote Mount Bosavi region of Papua New Guinea suffered deadly epidemics after contacts with the outside world. An estimated 25 % (according to another source 40 % ) of the inhabitants were killed by flu and other virus diseases (measles): fairly harmless infections for us, but lethal for the local small village communities lacking the respective blood antibodies.

Emmanuel de Mérode managed to reduce illegal activities in Virunga, according to the FAZ article (see below) Certainly these facts should be valued as a great achievement! But does'nt this indication also illustrate that until then not all was done that could have been done, to improve the conservation situation ? Now, after the almost fatal experience of the ambush, the plan to protect mountain gorillas is being renewed (see headline above) – do we really have to wait for more attacks in order to take more efficient action?


Mountain gorillas, Virunga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo / ©: Martin Harvey / WWF-Canon

© Martin Harvey / WWF-Canon

Berggorilla-Schützer in Kongo Attentat auf Direktor des Virunga Parks

FAZ - 16.04.2014

Papa Emmanuel“, wie ihn seine Ranger nennen, gilt vielen in Kongo als Held. Mit seinem Einsatz hat er sich jedoch auch einige Feinde gemacht – zuletzt eine britische Erdölfirma. Wer steckt hinter dem Attentat?

Es gibt in Kongo nicht viele Ausländer, die Heldenstatus genießen. Der 43 Jahre alte Belgier Emmanuel de Mérode aber ist so einer. Seit 2008 leitet der Anthropologe den für seine Berggorillas weltberühmten Virunga-Nationalpark im Osten Kongos und hat in dieser Zeit die Wilderei eingedämmt, den illegalen Holzeinschlag stark verringert und, wenn nötig, auch blutrünstigen Rebellenführern Honig ums Maul geschmiert, solange sie nur „seine“ Gorillas in Ruhe ließen.

Es gibt nicht wenige Leute in Kongo, die behaupten, dass es die Primaten nicht mehr geben würde ohne den ebenso mutigen wie fintenreichen Einsatz des belgischen Adligen. Am vergangenen Dienstag wurde „Papa Emmanuel“, wie ihn seine Ranger liebevoll rufen, bei einem Überfall nahe der Regionalstadt Goma schwer verletzt. De Mérode war auf dem Rückweg von Goma, als Unbekannte das Feuer auf sein Fahrzeug eröffneten. Er erlitt einen Bauchschuss und einen Schuss ins Bein. Nach einer Notoperation in einem privaten Krankenhaus in Goma wurde sein Zustand am Mittwoch als ernst, aber nicht mehr lebensbedrohlich bezeichnet.

De Mérode hatte unmittelbar vor dem Überfall der Staatsanwaltschaft in Goma ein umfangreiches Dossier über die Machenschaften einer britischen Erdölfirma übergeben, die sich seit geraumer Zeit um Förderkonzessionen in dem zum Weltkulturerbe gehörenden Virunga-Nationalpark bemüht und dabei ausgesprochen robust vorgeht. Ob der Überfall mit de Mérodes Ermittlungen gegen das Ölunternehmen in Zusammenhang steht, ist indes offen. Der Belgier hatte sich auch viele Feinde bei der sogenannten Holzkohlemafia gemacht, die im Park illegale Köhlereien betreibt.

Die Nachricht von dem Mordversuch konnte jedenfalls nicht zu einem schlechteren Zeitpunkt kommen: Zwei Jahre lang war der Park für Touristen geschlossen, weil sich dort abermals Rebellen und kongolesische Armee gegenüberstanden. Seit drei Wochen ist er wieder geöffnet und lockt mit Sonderangeboten.

Compiled from various published sources

for the book in preparation: In the Name of Conservation,

by ECOCULTURE, Dr. Thomas Schultze-Westrum,

GR 64010 Prinos


Email: thschuwe@kazaviti-thassos.net


Im Aufbau - Bilder und Text


Nicht einmal die altehrwürdigen Platanen  am Portal zur Schlucht von Kazaviti vermögen wir gegen Vandalismus zu beschützen - vor Einwohnern des Dorfes die sich "Naturschützer" nennen. Angeblich war dieser Baum tot - Brennholz. So wäre es ein Naturwunder, dass er wieder lebendig geworden ist und neu austreibt...Die Forstbehörde hatte nur ein blindes Auge - unser Protest ist verhallt.

Seals and coastal fishermen face identical threats, more than just the rapid depletion of fish resources by exploitive trawlers... ...weiterlesen "Seals and fishermen united in one boat"

Footnotes (F...)

F1: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2006: Ref.: New Guinea Singing Dog“ Quote: „Once thought to inhabit the entire island of New Guinea, today wild populations are thought to be extinct, with captive specimens numbering 100 – 200.“

F2: New Guinea Singing Dog Society web site 2006 – Research.

F3: dto. - Home, three quotes: „Originally declared a unique species, canis hallstromi, in 1969 they were grouped with the Australian Dingo as a feral wild (wild-living) subspecies of the domestic dog, Canis familiaris dingo.“ „ ... a wild animal that until recently was tamed (but not domesticated) companion only to Stone Age tribes.“ And: „Until the NGSD is once again officially declared a separate subspecies or species, traditional conservation orgnisations are understandably unwilling to spend funds saving an animal of questionable taxonomic status.“

F4: www.wolfpark.org, 2006, quote: „ The New Guinea Singing Dog (NGSD) has lived wild in the New Guinea highlands since prehistoric times.“

F5: RareBreed Network, 2006, quoted from The New Guinea Singing Dog Club of America: „The New Guinea Singing Dog is a natural breed of wild origin.“

F6: The Vancouver courier, August 05, 2004, Rare dog a tuneful howler, quote:The New Guinea Singing Dog Conservation Society „wants to promote the dog's conservation both in the wild and in captivity. Although in 1969, New Guinea singing dogs were grouped with the Australian dingo as a feral wild sub species of the domestic dog, the organization is working to have them declared (!) a separate species or sub species.“

F7: BBC – Radio 4 – The New Guinea Singing Dog, 26th April, 2005, quotes: “New Guinea Singing Dogs are small red dogs from the remote highland forests of New Guinea, where they live alongside exotic creatures such as birds of paradise, tree kangaroos and cassowaries... Singers do have several characteristics that mark them out as different from other dogs, both domestic and wild.“

F8: cf.ref. BBC – Science & Nature – Wildfacts, 2006.

F9: Basenjis & New Guinea Singing Dogs ((http://singingdog.freeyellow.com), 2006, quote: „Both Basengjis and NGSDs ... come from wild origins and are not a man made breed.“

F10: Quote from KOLER-MATZNICK and BRISBIN, 2001: „The NGSD is a distinctive form of wild dog indigenous to the mountains of New Guinea.“

F11: Quote from KOLER-MATZNICK et al. 2003: „The NGSD has often been dismissed, without investigation, as a feral domestic dog, based on its morphological similiarity to Canis familiaris.

F12: Basenjis & New Guinea Singing Dogs (http://singingdog.freeyellow.com). Home: Understanding the Two Breeds. Quote: „They are part a big part of our family, live in our house, even sleep in our bed!“

F13: „The North American NGSD population had only four founders“ (KOLER-MATZNICK et al. 2000). These individuals originate from three locations: the original Hallstrom pair was captured 1956 in the Lavani Valley of the Southern Highlands District of Papua New Guinea (PNG). From it's progeny a pair was sent to San Diego Zoo, Califonia, in 1958. This brother/sister pair were the original founders of the North American population. San Diego Zoo also sent a pair from their captive breeding group, in 1963, to the Institut für Haustierkunde, Kiel in Germany. The Kiel institute further received five highland dogs in 1977 from the Eipomek Valley which is located in the Jayawijaya District of West Papua (formerly Irian Jaya). From their offspring a female was sent in 1987 to Sedgewick County Zoo, Wichita, Kansas. Then, in 1994, I.Lehr Brisbin, Jr. imported the fourth founder of the North American population: a male bred at the Baiyer River Sanctuary in Papua New Guinea. This male's sire was from the original Hallstrom (Taronga Park Zoo) line, but his dam was reported to have been wild caught in the vicinity of Wapamanda in the PNG highlands (KOLER – MATZNICK et al. 2000).

F14: cf. SHARMA et al. 2003 and the popular article by Susan Lumpkin: Hiding in Plain Sight, on the website: Conservation & Science (www.nationalzoo.si.edu), with maps and diagram. There is no reference, though, to wolf populations east of the Indian Peninsula.

F15: cf. Breeds of Dogs. New Guinea Singing Dog (www.thebreedsofdogs.com/NEW_GUINEA_SINGING_DOG.htm).

In an undated personal written communication of approx.1968 Fru I. Öhman, Atterbergsvägan 3, 683 00 Hagfors, Sweden in reference to her reserach paper in preparation (in Acta Cynologica Scandinavica – if published I cannot check) notes in reference to Papuan dogs:

„ Leider haben wir auf zwei sehr wichtige Fragen bisher keine Antwort bekommen. Die erste gilt der Hitzeperiode. Von nordischen Wölfen wird öfters gesagt, sie hätten nur eine jährlich; auch die in den Heimatländern ungestört lebenden Basenjis haben dort nur eine. Nach England übersiedelt, begannen die Hündinnen nach circa einem Decennium dem Rhythmus der dort einheimischen Hündinnen zu folgen (hormonell bedingte Reizung, von der Witterung hitziger Hündinnen angeregt?) Bis jetzt hat niemand darüber berichtet, ob Papuahunde ein- oder zweimal des Jahres Würfe liefern.

Die zweite unbeantwortete Frage gilt dem Haarkleide. Die Felle, die uns liebenswürdig zum Studium der Calvaria beigelegt wurden von dem Institut für Domestikationsforschung, Universität Kiel, waren glatthaaring. Manche Bilder zeigen Hunde, die, wie die beiden lebenden Exemplare der Zoological Society of London, die ich 1967 sah, ein längeres, mehr offenes Fell haben. Schliesslich fand ich in Brongersma: The Animal World of Netherlands NG, Groningen 1958, ein Bild von einem Papuahund (cf. fig...), der sich offenbar im Haarkleidwechsel befand, teilweise glatthaaring, teilweise vermutlich noch im Winterkleid.“

F 16: New Guinea Singing Dog Information (www.thepetprofessor.com).

F17: Official Standards of the New Guinea Singing Dog Club of America (www.rarebreed.com).

F18: Rare Breed Network: New Guinea Singing Dog Standard (www.rarebreed.com), N.G.S.D.C.A. Quote: „New Guinea Singing Dogs are active,lively and alert. They are constantly exploring everything in their environment,...“

F19: National Park Service.U.S. Department of the Interior (www.nps.gov). Quote: „It is theoretically possible for people to have entered North America from Asia at repeated intervals between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago... Well documented finds in both the southwestern United States and South America suggest that humans were in these locations about 12,000 years ago. Much closer to Bering Land Bridge, the arctic coastline was not peopled year-round until about 4,500 years ago.“

F20: from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. According to Pioneers of Island Melanesia on www.human-evol.cam.ac.uk, New Guinea and Australia were joined by a continent known as Sahul until about 8.000 BP.

F21: Breeds of Dogs:Telomian (www.thebreedsofdogs.com).

F22: This separate „phantom pariah dog“ of more recent introduction to New Guinea plays a role in the imagiantion of quite a few scholars contemplating about relations and validity of native dogs on New Guinea, but acknowledging only the one, the NGSD as the really autochthonous dog representative on the island – comparable only with the dingo: In a personal email letter of 14 July, 2001, Janice Koler – Matznick writes: „I firmly believe the lowland and common village NG pariah dog, which in the Highlands has of course been hybridized for maybe two thousand years with wild Singers that were caught and tamed by the Highlanders are of a separate origin than the wild mountain Singers.“ There is no evidence, though, of such separate dog strain, for the Highlands – and in the lowlands the pariah dog which is native there is THE representative without any known contemporary dog competitor prior to the introduction of foreign breeds in colonial times (cf. chapter E).

F23: according to the Fraser Island Defenders Organisation.


F24: Upon my enquiry, Peter Savolainen replied (in his email of 2 October, 2006): „Yes, we have sequenced a few Fraser island dingoes. They all had one and the same mtDNA type (a typical dingo type) so apparently only a few animals formed the popualtion. That's about everything we can say about them.“

F25: Savolainen et al. 2004 have included into their mitochondrial DNA study a total of 19 pre-European archaeological dog samples from Polynesia.

F26: personal communication Dr. Ute Meyer-Lemppenau, 1970.

F27: Quote from the appendix to KOPPERS 1942, by U. Duerst: „ Was nun endlich die von Prof. Koppers betonte Tatsache angeht, dass dieser Hund (note: the dog of the Bhils people in Central India) nicht bellt sondern heult, so liegt darin kein sicherer Nachweis für seine Eigenschaft als Wildhund. Paul Gervais vom Pariser Muse'um d'Histoire Naturelle schrieb im Dictionnaire des Sciences me'dicinales, Bd. 16, pg. 21, dass das Bellen der Hunde nur bei zivilisierten Völkern vorkomme, nie aber bei den Hunden primitiver Völker, die nur heulen. „ Des chiens d'Europe redevenus libres au milieu des pampas de l'Ame'rique ont cesse' d'aboyer et le me^me fait s'est reproduit sur d'autres points du globe dans des circonstances analogues.“

So nett das klingt, ist doch zu bemerken, dass das Bellen des Hundes in seiner Sprache den „“Standlaut““ darstellt und dann benutzt wird, wenn der Hund im wesentlichen „“Wächter““ und nicht in seiner Hauptaufgabe „“Hetzer und Jäger ist!“

I wish to add from my observations on Batanta Island (cf.main text) that dogs do not howl when hunting, but rather express various high pitch staccato vocalizations, in persue of game and when keeping a bush pig at bay.

F28: cf the chapter: „Kausalität des Friedens – Die Kommunalisierung, on p. 80 ff.

F29: Personal communications Dr. Barry Craig of September, 2006.

F30: There is no field evidence whatsoever to support the view expressed by KOLER – MATZNICK et al. 2000: „The behavior of captive NGSDs suggests that this canid must have a monogamous, non – pack social organization in the wild.“

F31: My wife Susanne (ethnography), stud. med. Wulf Schiefenhoevel (ethno-medicine) and myself (zoology and ethnography), between 20 August and 20 September, 1966. For a summary of the 1966 expedition cf. SCHULTZE-WESTUM 1968.

F32: Kim Gollan in his Ph.D thesis (1982) considered the Bosavi skull measurements as well; they stand separate from those taken from NGDS skulls. The Bosavi specimens were less robust and narrower (personal communication 16 July, 2001 by Janice Koler – Matznick).

F33: Studer had placed New Guinea lowland dogs under the species Canis novae hiberniae Lesson more than half a century before Troughton came up with his highland species Canis hallstromi.

F34: Studer 1901 gives this description of the dog population he found on New Ireland (Bismarck Archipelago north-east of New Guinea): „ Der Hund ist ein Tier von der Grösse und dem Habitus eines mittelgrossen Spitzers, nur mit höheren Läufen, das Haar ist kurz, überall glatt anliegend, auch am Schwanz, der nicht geringelt ist und wenig nach aufwärts gebogen getragen wird. Der Kopf erscheint relativ breit, die Schnauze scharf abgesetzt, ziemlich spitz. Die Ohren sind breit angesetzt, spitz und werden aufrecht getragen. Die Farbe war meist schmutzig weiss oder rahmfarben mit dunklen, meist schwarzen Flecken oder Platten, oft erstreckt sich die schwarze Farbe über einen grossen Teil des Körpers, so dass nur eine weisse Blässe, Brustfleck, oft weisser Hals und Pfoten zurückbleiben.“

F35a: Here the full quotation from FINSCH 1888 in his chapter „Astrolabe – Bai: (cf. also the reference to Hagen 1899 in chapter G): „Die Abstammung des Papuahundes bleibt auf einer Insel, wo kein einziges Raubtier vorkommt, ein Rätsel, dessen Lösung innigst mit der Herkunft des hier lebenden Menschen zusammenhängt, eine Frage, welche eine viel grössere Bedeutsamkeit hat, als es vielen scheinen dürfte. Auf Gund des Vorhandenseins von Hunden als Haustier hat die Annahme Berechtigung, dass die Papuas überhaupt ein eingewandertes Volk sind. über das „„Woher?““ will ich hier indes weiter keine Betrachtungen anstellen. Der Papuahund, in Bongu „“Sfa““ genannt, gehört übrigens jener eigentümlichen Rasse an, wie sie sich allenthalben in Neu – Guinea findet, und sich am meistern mit einem kleinen Dingo vergleichen lässt. Er ist glatthaarig, von kleiner unansehnlicher Statur, hat einen fuchsähnlichen Kopf, aber mit stumpfer Schnauze und aufrechstehenden, spitzgerundeten Ohren. Der Schwanz ist stark nach links gedreht, wird aber beim Anblick eines Fremden aus Furchtsamkeit meist hängend gehragen. Die Färbing variiert ausserordentlich, und schon hieraus spricht die lange Domestikation am deutlichsten.Im allgemeinen herrscht eine rostfahle Färbung vor, mit weisser Schnauze, Sirnmitte, Kehle, Bauch und Schwanzspitze, aber es gibt auch dunkelbraune Exemplare, solche mit weissem Kopfe und schwarygefleckte, kurzum nicht zwei Exemplare sind völllig gleich. ... Eine besondere Eigentümlichkeit des Papuahundes ist, dass er nicht bellt, sondern nur heult, aber ich hörte die Hunde in Astrolabe – Bai nicht jene regelmässigen Heulkonzerte aufführen, bei dem sich alle Hunde vereinigen, und welche nicht gerade zu den Annehmlichkeiten von Port Moresby gehären. Der Papuahund ist übrigens von scheuem, feigen Wesen, sehr diebisch und schon wegen seiner geringen Grösse nicht zur Jagd geeignet, wie er kein guter Wächter ist. Gewöhnlich pflegen sich bei Annäherung eines Fremden die Hunde des Dorfes lautlos wegzuschleichen. „“Wie der Hund, so der Herr““ gilt auch für Neu – Guinea, insofern beide keine Jäger, wohl aber Vegetarier sind. Wie sein Herr nährt sich der Papuahund vorzugsweise von Pflanzenstoffen, frisst z.B. mit Vorliebe Kokosnuss, und sein bei den Papuas so sehr beliebtes Fleisch mag infolge dessen wohl nicht übel schmecken. Man hält den Hund des Essens wegen. Hunde und Schweine werden übrigens nur bei Festen aufgetischt, welche die Papua sehr lieben und mit grosser Beharrlichkeit, oft mehrere Tage lang, feiern.“

F35b  Nicolai Mikluho Maclay, the first resident (Russian) biologist on the north-coast of New Guinea (in the Astrolabe Bay region, from 1871), reported to the Linnaean Society of New South Wales his observations about indigenous dogs (quoted after Wikipedia): Maclay identified several anatomical and behaviorial differences between Australian Dingoes and dogs that inhabited the coastal lowlands(Maclay = „Rai“ Coast) of Papua Guinea. He gave the Papuan coastal canines the scientific name Canis papuensis. The differences between Canis dingo and Canis papuensis included a much smaller brain, which he attributed to the quite different lifestyles of the two animals. There were several differences in overall looks and build. In fact, the dogs he dubbed Papuan Dogs or New Guinea Dogs bore little resemblance to the canines commonly known as New Guinea Singing Dogs ... which were dicovered some 80 years later. Whereas the Australian Dingo is well-known for its intelligence and boldness, as well as near independence from humans, he reported that the coastal Papuan canines remained on the periphery of native villages, regularly feeding off cast-offs and human waste. Hunting on their own was almost unknown. Instead of the bold independence of the Australian Dingo, the coastal dogs behaved very subserviently toward humans, exhibiting begging and groveling. Additionally, he stated, "The Canis papuensis is very different in appearance and character from Canis dingo; is generally smaller, has not the bushy tail of the dingo“.

F36: The venom of the snake species Aspidomorphus muelleri (family Elapidae) affects both the blood and the nervous system. I have the honour of being the first person bitten under medical observation (by our travel companion stud med. Wulf Schiefenhoevel). And Wulf published the symptons in the „Australian Journal of Medicine“.

F37: In addition to the breeding colony of „sugar gliders“ Petaurus breviceps papuanus which I had established after the first journey to New Guinea in 1959, I now brought close relatives (of the family Phalangeridae) to Munich: striped possums (Dactylopsila trivirgata), feather-tailed possums (Distoechurus pennatus) and mouse possums (Eudromicia caudata), for comparative behavioural studies.

F38: J. Koler – Matznick, personal communication (Email) of 14 July, 2001.

F39: STERLY (1962) notes: Wild or feral dogs live in the interior of several islands in the Solomons (Guppy 1858; Hopkins 1928; Paravicini1931). Ivens reports 1930 from the island of Mala that since the government had imposed a tax for dogs, their numbers in villages diminished and (instead) packs of dogs formed in the mountains which fed on giant rats, cuscus, lizards and land crabs“ (translated from the original German text).

F40: More dogs used to be reared in Kalam villages prior to the expansion of poultry keeping according to BULMER (2000). It should be noted that WILLIAMS (1936, p. 420) reports from the Trans – Fly region of southern New Guinea (a mostly savannah type country) that „dogs of the common Papuan variety are fairly numerous, esquecially of course in those regions where wallaby – hunting is a more important phase of food request. Among the Garamudi, whose gardening is so elementary, the dogs would seem to out - number the humans. In visiting the island of Inaforok I found myself in a house with eleven men and boys and between thirty-five and forty clamorous dogs; and throughout the village were to be seen litters of pups at every stage of infancy.“ Eating dog meat had been apparently a habit of tribes in the Trans – Fly region, but at the time of William's field research of 1926 until 1932 the author notes: „The eating of dogs is usually regarded with abhorrescence.“

F41: Le Roux (1950) in his monograph of 3 volumes "De Bergpapoea's van Nieuw - Guinea en hun Woongebied", vol 1, p. 311, presents the following observations: "De hond, die met hert varken het enige huisdier is, wordt, behalve voor de jacht op de wilde varkens, ook in het bijzoder voor op kangaroes en koeskoes gebruikt. WIRZ is verkeerd ingelicht, wanneer hij zegt " Fuer die Jagd kommt er gar nicht in Betracht". Wel zijn honden over het algemeen bij de Berpaoea's schaars; in de meeste nederzettigen treft men een exemplar aan, echter zelden meer dan een. Naar mijn ondervinding doen zij er dan ook niet garne afstand van, tenminste van de volwassen exemplaren, die voor hen voor het opsporen en opjagen van het wild van zoveel belang zijn. Onze zooloog moest aan het Paniai-meer een hoge prijs aan schelpjes en ijzeren bijlen betalen om een tweetal honden tebemachtigen. De canis papuensis komt bij de Bergpapoea in allerlei kleuren voor; zwart. geel, bruin, wit. dan wel wit en zwart gevlekt. De haren zijngewoonlijk kort en zacht. De oren staan spits vooruit: hij heeft daardoor en door zijn spitse snuit en sterk gekromde pluimstaart ongetwijfeld iets vosachtigs en vertoont enige gelijkenis met de Australische dingo. De honden die ik bij de Bergpapoea's zag wijken duidelijk af een bij de Mamberamo-papoea's in het Van Rees-gebergte, die er meer als de echte tropische kamponghond, degladakker, uitzen. DePapoea-honden kunnen niet blaffen, maar heffe af en toe een onaangenaam klagend gehuil aan. Vermeldenswaart is nog, dat hondstolheid op Nieuw-Guinea niet voorkommt."

F42: for this translation I am indepted to Drs. Kees van den Meiracker, curator at the Wereldmuseum Rotterdam.

F43: If the image projected in publications, of the man – pariah dog interleationship is correct – I have reasonable doubts in this respect...

F44: In one of the authentic explorers books I came across this remark: „It used to be always a source of wonder to me where all the dogs' teeth used in the Pacific came from until the other day I happened to read of an action between two London firms for payment of a shipment of dogs' teeth made to the South Seas“ (BEAVER 1920, p. 229).

F45: Quote from WILLIAMS (1924, p. 127): „The nearest aproach to a currency“, by the natives of the Purari Delta, „ is perhaps supplied by arm – shells, but all ornaments of a similiar durability may be used. Their value varies with their size and finish. The only indigenous ornaments thus used are dogs' teeth. These may be paid over or presented either in the form of a string or necklet, or else arranged singly in a length of sago pith. The teeth are stuck into this, and when removed, the pith with the series of holes may be kept as a record of this number. One dozen would equal one arm – shell.“

F46: BULMER (2000) continues with her speculation stating that wild dogs in the lowlands were found „probably wherever there was sufficient uncultivated land for wild animal to be supported, but now most, if not all, lowland dogs are likely to be domesticated and live in human settlements.“ Still nowadays, appox. 80 % of the lowland areas of New Guinea provide sufficient suitable habitat for „wild animals“. And there is no evidence so far.for any conversion of wild to domestic dogs found in that vast area. It has already been noted (in chapters B and E) that the primeval forest is no suitable habitat neither for feral nor wild dogs on New Guinea, anyway.

F47: I am quoting the original specification not being able to determine whether these excavated specimens were incisor or canine teeth.

F48: I am wondering... after all these stories: Can the reader still have doubts about dogs preferring to roam free – go wild? Certainly, had I been one of those unfortunate village dogs passing through that sort of treatment I would have run away and never come back close to any human being... But, humble, faithful and enduring creatures they were, these Papuan native dogs; and some superior reason must have come up for some of them to abandon human company for good – challenging motives which were stronger than to stick to people regardless of all their weird performance over the ages.

F49: Is'nt this manifestation of affectionate behaviour a kind of counter balance against the previous footnote? I wish to remind the reader that also the Papuans own beloved children are sent through a nightmare of initiation rituals... It ought to be done that way, so the people believe, both with dogs and children, in order to get them fit for the duties and other eventualities of life.

F50: quoted from Studies in the Mountain Regions of New Guinea. The West Irian Interdisciplinary Project. State Museums of the Prussian Cultural Heritage, Berlin. Museum of Ethnology. No date.

51: The „people of the forest and the long grass“ include the dog in this old tale: it is the only hint I came across in l my search through literature and in the field, of an originally wild status of the Papuan (coastal) dog.

F52: The Wiram myth is presented at the conclusion of this book also as my respectful tribute to Francis Edgar Williams, M.A., B.Sc., government anthropologist in the Territory of Papua 1922 – 1943 who has contribued, by his carefully conducted field research and through his inspiring, always balanced personal views, an immense wealth of knowledge and bridges of understanding the Papuan traditional ways of life.

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