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A. Personal introduction


The fascination of New Guinea - the Last Unknown.

My journey to Australia and New Guinea half a centrury ago. Visit to Sir Edward Hallstrom and „his“ dogs at Taronga Park Zoo of Sydney.

Travelling twenty times (from 1959 to 2003) into the wilderness of New Guinea: to the Central Highlands and the Papuan Gulf District – discoveries of ancient strains of New Guinea village dogs.

This publications presents the first comprehensive survey of Papuan dogs.

B. Scientific introduction

Troughton's description of Canis hallstromi from the highlands of New Guinea – the so

called „New Guinea Singing Dog“.

The actual scientific status of Papuan dogs: wild or feral ?

C. About strains and breeds

A dynamic definition of dog breeds. Reference to Lawrence Alderson.

Pariah dogs. What are „primitive dogs“ ? References to Eberhard Trumler's research.

The NGSD breed is separated from traditionally kept Papuan dogs.

D. Early migrations to New Guinea and Australia

South-east Asian dogs: their origin and differenciation.

The zoo-geographical isolation of New Guinea and the Australian continent.

Migrations of humans, dogs and pigs from the Asian mainland – first to New Guinea and from there to Australia.

The evolution of the Dingo.

E. Adaptation and differentiation of dogs on New Guinea

The criteria for evolution of native breeds on the New Guinea island continent.

The role of ecological and cultural factors.

Early traces of dog husbandry (archaeological evidence).

The so far undefined strain of the coastal zone (e.g. in the Papuan Gulf, the Raja Ampat Archipelago) and the newly discovered strain of the foothills inland (the Mt. Bosavi region) and the Southern Highlands District.

Their relations to the Australian Dingo.

The Fraser Island Dingo link-population.

F. Our experiences with Individual Papuan dogs

"Sóbi" and "Nérumu" in the field and at home in Germany. Observations of their behaviour, various anecdotes.

G. Traditional dog husbandry in selected regions of New Guinea

The use of dogs in game hunting.

Eating of dog meat.

Dog teeth as ornaments. Customs related to the collecting of dog teeth. Barter trade.

The attachment and status of dogs in Papuan village society: integration and affection.

H. Mythology and folk-tales about dogs in selected Papuan tribes

Collected from early travel books and ethnographical literature.

I. Preservation of strains - but how?

The endangered status of Papuan dog strains

Their near extinction and measures for their preservation.

Footnotes (F...separate article)

Research papers (Bibliography...in the same separate article)

For the text (pages 1 - 18), with references to the pictures, see article Papuan Dogs - the first companions of man.

Short Captions (cf. also references in the text):

fig. 1a, West Papua, Central Highlands, Wissel Lakes  (from: LE ROUX 1950, see footnote F41)

fig. 1b, "Hallstrom's Dog", Melbourne Zoo, December 1965 (colour pictures will be added),

fig. 2, Papua New Guinea (in the following PNG) the strain of the southern coast, Bereina, 1966,

fig. 3, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Tutugu village on the Kikori River, inland from the Delta region, male dog

howling, 1966,

fig. 4, dto, same individual dog,

figs. 5 - 7, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region, 1966,

figs. 8 - 12, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Babiko village (Kerewo ethnic district), 1966.

Measurements (male): hight to shoulder  47 cm, hight to belly 33  cm; body length 75 cm; tail lenght 28 cm; head 18 cm long and 10 cm broad.

figs. 13 - 14, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region, 1966,

fig. 15, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Meagoma village (Gope ethnic district), 1966: our individual dog "Sobi",

fig. 16, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Gope ethnic district, 1966,

figs. 17 - 19, Aramia River (Gogodala ethnic district), PNG, 1968,

figs. 20, 21, Kumawa Pensinsula (Kaimana), southern coast of West Papua, 1978,

figs. 22 - 30, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region (Gope ethnic district), 1976,

fig. 31, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region, our individual dog "Sobi", 1966,

fig. 35, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Kerewo ethnic district, interior of communal house (dúbu daímo), woman's cooking place, 1966,

fig. 36, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region, Damaibari village, dogs teeth used in head decoration (béte),

fig. 37, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Mina-Goiravi village (Gope ethnic district), dogs teeth necklace in Paíroma initiation ceremony, 1970,

fig. 38, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region, dogs teeth ornament (wíto-wih), worn by women in mourning, 1966,

fig. 39, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region, two colour varieties of indigenous dogs, 1966,

fig. 40, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Gihiteri village, Omati River (inland from the Delta region), 1959,

figs. 41, 42, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region, 1966,

figs. 43, 44 upper Sepik River, PNG, Idam Valley, Bamblediam village, photo Barry Craig 1973,

fig. 45,  Mt. Bosavi region, PNG, Didessa village (Kaluli ethnic district): the dog on the left side is our

individual dog "Sobi", the dog in the door frame a native dog, 1966,

fig. 46, Mt. Bosavi region, PNG, Womobi village, 1966.

Measurements (male): hight to shoulder  37 cm; body length  54 cm; tail length 20,5 cm; head length (ear to snout) 12 cm; ear  5,5 cm. Colours brown, black and white.

figs. 47 - 50, Mt. Bosavi region, PNG, Didessa village (Kaluli ethnic district), 1966,

figs. 51 - 54, Mt. Bosavi region, PNG, Didessa village (Kaluli ethnic district), 1966, "stocky" variety of native dogs,

figs. 55 - 58, Mt. Bosavi region, PNG, Didessa village (Kaluli ethnic district), "slim" variety of native dogs,

(resembling the coastal population). Note the string loop to keep the dog, 1966.

Measurements (male): hight to shoulder  35 cm; body length  58 cm; ear 7,5 cm; tail  24 cm.

fig. 59, our dog "Sobi" on a track in the rainforest of Mt. Bosavi, 1966,

fig. 60, Penan man with his hunting dog, Borneo, from CARPENTER 1963,

figs. 61 - 63, the peculiar brown spots above the eyes: Papuan Gulf dog, Sardinia Island shepherds' dog

and pups of Papuan Gulf native dog "Sobi" - the father was an European dog.

Das große Katzenelend

Das Dorf Kazaviti auf der Insel Thassos im Norden der Ägäis wird im Herbst fast gänzlich verlassen. Einheimische und Sommergäste lassen dann mehr oder weniger bedenkenlos all die vielen Katzen ohne Versorgung zurück (photo # 17). Es beginnt ein unerträgliches, doch kaum beachtetes Martyrium, Die Tiere hungern nicht nur, es breiten sich auch Krankheiten aus; Jahr für Jahr geht die Katzengrippe um - sie bedeutet für jüngere Tiere häufig den Tod ( photo # 26). Und Jahr für Jahr, seit das Dorf wieder aus seinem Dornröschenschlaf erwacht ist und im Sommer wieder bewohnt wird, vergrößert sich das Leiden der Tiere. Es werden immer mehr Katzen (trotz der Todesfälle). Das kümmert die Leute wenig. Und wer ist bereit, dafür Geld für eine Geburtenkontrolle auszugeben... Noch schlimmer: die auch im Winter hier ausharren und sich der Katzen annehmen, werden deswegen angefeindet. Sollen die Katzen doch verenden! Es sind ja viel zu viele! ...weiterlesen "Kätzchengeschichten aus Kazaviti"

Note also articles/parts I (Introduction/general); III (Greece) and IV (Bavaria).

In New Guinea uprooted villagers “design” their houses in a similar way as shanty town dwellers; they return to the basic construction outlines, but they also seek access to advanced technology = corrugated iron, plastic and alike. Any tradition in house design has been totally abandoned. The dilemma here is the collapse of the original communal coherence, hence the lack of pride and esteem for their own heritage (a general village peoples dilemma) and the imitation of urban =modern= white man’s ways of buildig technology, without having adequate economic means or adequate support. Regardless, what costs money is supposed to be better than the bush materials that grow wild in the village environment.

Note also articles/parts I (Introduction/general); II (New Guinea - Melanesia) and III (Greece)

Bavarian villages were losing their image, with high-rise cooperative containers (Raiffeisen) dominating the sky line. But with folk tradition still  much alive and reshaping not only by incentives like tourism, old craftsmanship (Zimmerer) and the old-style decorated wooden farm buildings in Uppewr Bavaria came back. Right to the 1960 much of the traditional, and sadly the oldest farm houses were lost, but after 1970 the renaissance came in full swing. Government attention (Landesamt für Denkmalpflege) focussed on churches. Simple houses were ignored. Fortunately, traditional farm buildings were not impeding the essential mechanisation in agriculture (machinery).