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Über Thomas Schultze-Westrum

Dr. Thomas Georg Hans SCHULTZE-WESTRUM Author of Scientific and Popular Publications Producer and Director of Documentary Films and Videos Adviser in Nature Conservation and Preservation of Rural Cultures Initiator of Conservation Programmes German national. Born 1937 (Berlin). Classical education at the Benedictine monastery of Ettal in Upper Bavaria. Graduate of Munich University, with degrees in Zoology, Geology and Cultural Anthropology (Ethnology). Scholarship by “Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes”. Research (University of Munich, other scientific institutions) and publications on social and population physiology of marsupials and other vertebrate fauna of New Guinea and the Mediterranean Region, cultural anthropology, conservation and resource management on the village level, mainly in Greece and New Guinea. Author of the books “New Guinea” (Berne 1972) and “Biologie des Friedens” (Biology of Peace), Munich 1974. Dr. Schultze-Westrum has joined for several years the Commissions on Ecology and Environmental Planning of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). He is the founder of the working group (IUCN Commission on Ecology) “Conservation and Traditional Life Styles” 1979; the “ECOCULTURE” Movement 1981; the “Gesellschaft für die Erhaltung alter und gefährdeter Haustierrassen” GEH (Society for the Preservation of Old and Endangered Breeds of Domestic Animals) 1981; and the non-profit-making society “KALLIERGIA”, for traditional agriculture and village conservation in Greece, 1993. As a consultant he has worked for the EU, IUCN, OECD and WWF. As a film maker he has produced, directed and mostly also shot, for German television and international TV networks, 75 documentaries, mainly ecological portraits with emphasis upon the integration of local and traditionally living people into conservation projects. His first film (1974) was about alternative (sustainable) utilization of tropical rainforests in New Guinea, for ZDF. Never Dr. Schultze-Westrum has entered any of his films into an award winning competition, because he is more concerned about the effects of his TV work in actual conservation and public awareness. One of these real awards was the creation of the Marine National Park Alonnisos Northern Sporades in Greece as a result of his film “The Coast of the Monk Seals” in 1976/77 for ZDF (ratings 36 % - shown in 11 countries). His programme “Green Desert”, about traditional water management in the Sultanate of Oman was distributed by the Television Trust for the Environment TVE to 44, mainly Third World, countries. Another leading aspect of his film work was the production of environmental films for the people of the country where he was filming. So, he produced the first TV series of films on ecology, rural life styles and conservation for Greece (in the early 80’s, 14 programmes) and for the Sultanate of Oman (late 80’s, 12 films). His deep interest in ancient human traditions inspired him to produce “Omani Seafaring”, for Oman TV; “Im Kielwasser Sindbads” (In the Wake of Sindbad), for the series Terra X of ZDF; and “Insel der Magier” (Island of the Sorcerers: Waigeo) for ARTE TV. After retiring from TV film production at the end of 2002 he is returning to his earlier scientific work (abandoned in the early 70’s) about the social and population physiology of marsupials ( Petaurus breviceps papuanus and closely related species); village based conservation; the evolution of human communal behaviour and cultural diversity; and the evolution of art styles in the Papuan Gulf province of New Guinea. Since 1992 he is also involved in eco- and agrotourism programmes that are based on his earlier promotion of this alternative “soft” tourism through publications and films, in Greece and West Papua. His conservation activities are continuously focussed on Greece and New Guinea, since 1957 and 1959, respectively. Dr. Schultze-Westrum now is writing up his experiences of many years field work and he is keeping communications alive through his homepage, from the ancient village of Kazaviti on the island of Thassos in the northern Aegean Sea. The conservation and re-activation of outstanding traditional values of Kazaviti stand at the centre of a local museum and documentation centre to be set up in one or even two old Macedonian stone houses.

7

A. Personal introduction

 

The fascination of New Guinea - the Last Unknown.

My journey to Australia and New Guinea half a centrury ago. Visit to Sir Edward Hallstrom and „his“ dogs at Taronga Park Zoo of Sydney.

Travelling twenty times (from 1959 to 2003) into the wilderness of New Guinea: to the Central Highlands and the Papuan Gulf District – discoveries of ancient strains of New Guinea village dogs.

This publications presents the first comprehensive survey of Papuan dogs.

B. Scientific introduction

Troughton's description of Canis hallstromi from the highlands of New Guinea – the so

called „New Guinea Singing Dog“.

The actual scientific status of Papuan dogs: wild or feral ?

C. About strains and breeds

A dynamic definition of dog breeds. Reference to Lawrence Alderson.

Pariah dogs. What are „primitive dogs“ ? References to Eberhard Trumler's research.

The NGSD breed is separated from traditionally kept Papuan dogs.

D. Early migrations to New Guinea and Australia

South-east Asian dogs: their origin and differenciation.

The zoo-geographical isolation of New Guinea and the Australian continent.

Migrations of humans, dogs and pigs from the Asian mainland – first to New Guinea and from there to Australia.

The evolution of the Dingo.

E. Adaptation and differentiation of dogs on New Guinea

The criteria for evolution of native breeds on the New Guinea island continent.

The role of ecological and cultural factors.

Early traces of dog husbandry (archaeological evidence).

The so far undefined strain of the coastal zone (e.g. in the Papuan Gulf, the Raja Ampat Archipelago) and the newly discovered strain of the foothills inland (the Mt. Bosavi region) and the Southern Highlands District.

Their relations to the Australian Dingo.

The Fraser Island Dingo link-population.

F. Our experiences with Individual Papuan dogs

"Sóbi" and "Nérumu" in the field and at home in Germany. Observations of their behaviour, various anecdotes.

G. Traditional dog husbandry in selected regions of New Guinea

The use of dogs in game hunting.

Eating of dog meat.

Dog teeth as ornaments. Customs related to the collecting of dog teeth. Barter trade.

The attachment and status of dogs in Papuan village society: integration and affection.

H. Mythology and folk-tales about dogs in selected Papuan tribes

Collected from early travel books and ethnographical literature.

I. Preservation of strains - but how?

The endangered status of Papuan dog strains

Their near extinction and measures for their preservation.

Footnotes (F...separate article)

Research papers (Bibliography...in the same separate article)

For the text (pages 1 - 18), with references to the pictures, see article Papuan Dogs - the first companions of man.

Short Captions (cf. also references in the text):

fig. 1a, West Papua, Central Highlands, Wissel Lakes  (from: LE ROUX 1950, see footnote F41)

fig. 1b, "Hallstrom's Dog", Melbourne Zoo, December 1965 (colour pictures will be added),

fig. 2, Papua New Guinea (in the following PNG) the strain of the southern coast, Bereina, 1966,

fig. 3, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Tutugu village on the Kikori River, inland from the Delta region, male dog

howling, 1966,

fig. 4, dto, same individual dog,

figs. 5 - 7, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region, 1966,

figs. 8 - 12, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Babiko village (Kerewo ethnic district), 1966.

Measurements (male): hight to shoulder  47 cm, hight to belly 33  cm; body length 75 cm; tail lenght 28 cm; head 18 cm long and 10 cm broad.

figs. 13 - 14, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region, 1966,

fig. 15, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Meagoma village (Gope ethnic district), 1966: our individual dog "Sobi",

fig. 16, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Gope ethnic district, 1966,

figs. 17 - 19, Aramia River (Gogodala ethnic district), PNG, 1968,

figs. 20, 21, Kumawa Pensinsula (Kaimana), southern coast of West Papua, 1978,

figs. 22 - 30, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region (Gope ethnic district), 1976,

fig. 31, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region, our individual dog "Sobi", 1966,

fig. 35, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Kerewo ethnic district, interior of communal house (dúbu daímo), woman's cooking place, 1966,

fig. 36, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region, Damaibari village, dogs teeth used in head decoration (béte),

fig. 37, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Mina-Goiravi village (Gope ethnic district), dogs teeth necklace in Paíroma initiation ceremony, 1970,

fig. 38, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region, dogs teeth ornament (wíto-wih), worn by women in mourning, 1966,

fig. 39, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region, two colour varieties of indigenous dogs, 1966,

fig. 40, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Gihiteri village, Omati River (inland from the Delta region), 1959,

figs. 41, 42, Papuan Gulf, PNG, Delta region, 1966,

figs. 43, 44 upper Sepik River, PNG, Idam Valley, Bamblediam village, photo Barry Craig 1973,

fig. 45,  Mt. Bosavi region, PNG, Didessa village (Kaluli ethnic district): the dog on the left side is our

individual dog "Sobi", the dog in the door frame a native dog, 1966,

fig. 46, Mt. Bosavi region, PNG, Womobi village, 1966.

Measurements (male): hight to shoulder  37 cm; body length  54 cm; tail length 20,5 cm; head length (ear to snout) 12 cm; ear  5,5 cm. Colours brown, black and white.

figs. 47 - 50, Mt. Bosavi region, PNG, Didessa village (Kaluli ethnic district), 1966,

figs. 51 - 54, Mt. Bosavi region, PNG, Didessa village (Kaluli ethnic district), 1966, "stocky" variety of native dogs,

figs. 55 - 58, Mt. Bosavi region, PNG, Didessa village (Kaluli ethnic district), "slim" variety of native dogs,

(resembling the coastal population). Note the string loop to keep the dog, 1966.

Measurements (male): hight to shoulder  35 cm; body length  58 cm; ear 7,5 cm; tail  24 cm.

fig. 59, our dog "Sobi" on a track in the rainforest of Mt. Bosavi, 1966,

fig. 60, Penan man with his hunting dog, Borneo, from CARPENTER 1963,

figs. 61 - 63, the peculiar brown spots above the eyes: Papuan Gulf dog, Sardinia Island shepherds' dog

and pups of Papuan Gulf native dog "Sobi" - the father was an European dog.


Das große Katzenelend

Das Dorf Kazaviti auf der Insel Thassos im Norden der Ägäis wird im Herbst fast gänzlich verlassen. Einheimische und Sommergäste lassen dann mehr oder weniger bedenkenlos all die vielen Katzen ohne Versorgung zurück (photo # 17). Es beginnt ein unerträgliches, doch kaum beachtetes Martyrium, Die Tiere hungern nicht nur, es breiten sich auch Krankheiten aus; Jahr für Jahr geht die Katzengrippe um - sie bedeutet für jüngere Tiere häufig den Tod ( photo # 26). Und Jahr für Jahr, seit das Dorf wieder aus seinem Dornröschenschlaf erwacht ist und im Sommer wieder bewohnt wird, vergrößert sich das Leiden der Tiere. Es werden immer mehr Katzen (trotz der Todesfälle). Das kümmert die Leute wenig. Und wer ist bereit, dafür Geld für eine Geburtenkontrolle auszugeben... Noch schlimmer: die auch im Winter hier ausharren und sich der Katzen annehmen, werden deswegen angefeindet. Sollen die Katzen doch verenden! Es sind ja viel zu viele! ...weiterlesen "Kätzchengeschichten aus Kazaviti"

Note also articles/parts I (Introduction/general); III (Greece) and IV (Bavaria).

In New Guinea uprooted villagers “design” their houses in a similar way as shanty town dwellers; they return to the basic construction outlines, but they also seek access to advanced technology = corrugated iron, plastic and alike. Any tradition in house design has been totally abandoned. The dilemma here is the collapse of the original communal coherence, hence the lack of pride and esteem for their own heritage (a general village peoples dilemma) and the imitation of urban =modern= white man’s ways of buildig technology, without having adequate economic means or adequate support. Regardless, what costs money is supposed to be better than the bush materials that grow wild in the village environment.

Note also articles/parts I (Introduction/general); II (New Guinea - Melanesia) and III (Greece)

Bavarian villages were losing their image, with high-rise cooperative containers (Raiffeisen) dominating the sky line. But with folk tradition still  much alive and reshaping not only by incentives like tourism, old craftsmanship (Zimmerer) and the old-style decorated wooden farm buildings in Uppewr Bavaria came back. Right to the 1960 much of the traditional, and sadly the oldest farm houses were lost, but after 1970 the renaissance came in full swing. Government attention (Landesamt für Denkmalpflege) focussed on churches. Simple houses were ignored. Fortunately, traditional farm buildings were not impeding the essential mechanisation in agriculture (machinery).